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Featured Article: A Different Kind of Martyrdom - How I learned to stop talking and start listening. - Martyrs go straight to heaven. I first heard this when I was about five and, after quickly thinking it over, I decided to ask God to let me die as a witness to the truth. It seemed to me the surest, fastest way to be with Jesus forever. Trekking through the jungle, sharing the good news with a lost tribe, being quickly put to death-it couldn’t be all that bad, right? Read Full Story

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Celebrating Black Catholic History Month
Daniel A. Rudd, Founder


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A Different Kind of Martyrdom

We joyfully announce the ‘Daniel Rudd Fund for African American Catholic Ministries’

Let the Spirit move you

Reflections on Race in America Today

Full of the Spirit: Five spiritual gifts of African American Catholics

Forgiveness

“Mercy Is the Lord’s Most Powerful Message!” Pope Francis and the Compassion of God

Black Catholic Teens Transformed by 2013 March for Life Trip

The Journey to Rome

Faith Engaged During the Advent Season

“Free Your Mind!”: True Worship and Christian Liberty

NBCC welcome's Immaculee' Ilibagiza as the keynote speaker for Congress XI

Mediation For Parishes

The Purpose Hidden Church

Prayer For Healing Your Family and You

Excerpts from "Beginning a conversation: Towards strategic and systemic change in the African American community through the lens of ministry"

Black Catholics: Vocal and Visible via Today's Media

In The Beginning, There Were Black Catholics

The Legacy of Cardinal Joseph Ritter continues on Indy's West Side

Become a Friend of the National Black Catholic Congress

Pastoral Letter: "What We Have Seen and Heard" Celebrates 25th Anniversary

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Daniel Rudd, THE AMERICAN CATHOLIC TRIBUNE, AND THE PLIGHT OF BLACK CATHOLICS, 1884-1899.

I hardly expect when a little boy, in the State of Kentucky, that this early day of my life-and I am a young man yet- I would by standing before a Catholic convention of this Union, to lift my voice in the interest of my race and of my church; but such is the case.

Daniel Rudd
Daniel A. Rudd, Founder
The National Black Catholic Congress

The speaker of these words was a slim, young Black man who delivered an address to the Catholic Young Men's National Union in Cincinnati in June, 1888. His name was Daniel Rudd and he was imparting to his audience of white Catholic men a dream that he had. His address continued:

It may seem strange to you, possibly, to hear me talking about colored Catholics, or any other sort of Catholics… We have in this country a large number of our own race, many of whom are Catholics, more, possibly, than any one of you have ever imagined… I believe that there are about two hundred thousand practical Catholics in the United States of my race.


…according to the statistics there are seven millions of negros in the United States. My friends, this race is increasing more rapidly than yours, and if it continues to increase in the future as it has in the past, by the middle of the next century they will outnumber your race… We have been led to believe that the church was inimical to the negro race, inimical to the genius of our Republic. This is not true; I feel that I owe it to myself, my God, and my country to refute this slander.

Rudd concluded his remarks with this announcement and invitation.

We are publishing a weekly newspaper; whatever it is, it is the best we can do in this work. A meeting of our people will be held somewhere; the time and place has not yet been fixed, but I am here, gentlemen, to ask your assistance, to ask your kindness, and you have shown it to me today.

When that convention comes, I trust that many of you will, either by your presence or in some other way, show your interest in this work. I believe that within ten years, if the work goes on as it has been going on, there will be awakened a laten force in this country. (1)

Thus Daniel A. Rudd, thirty-three years old, born a slave in Bardstown Kentucky in 1854, baptized Catholic in infancy, announced to the young me before him the three major concerns in his life: the newspaper he founded, the present condition and future growth of the Black race, and the Catholic Church and the conversion of Blacks.

THE NEWSPAPER.

Rudd began his newspaper about 1884 probably in Springfield, Ohio. (2) He had followed his elder brother to Springfield sometime after the Civil War to obtain a secondary-school education. The name of the newspaper that he began was the Ohio State Tribune. Sometime in 1886 Rudd changed the focus of the weekly newspaper in these following words:

We will do what no other paper published by colored men has dared to do-give the great Catholic Church a hearing and show that it is worthy of at least a fair consideration at the hands of our race, being as it is the only place on this Continent where rich and poor, white and black, must drop prejudice at the threshold and go hand in hand to the altar. (3)

Later that year or early the next, the Ohio State Tribune became The American Catholic Tribune, published in Cincinnati with the following words proudly displayed on the editorial page: "The only Catholic Journal owned and published by Colored Men."

The earliest extant copy of the newspaper seems to be the edition of February 18, 1887, published in Cincinnati, volume III no. 13. The numbering indicates that by this time the newspaper was in its third year of existence. On the masthead was indicated the approval of "Cardinal Gibbons, archbishop of Baltimore, the most Reverend Archbishops of Cincinnati and Philadelphia, and the Right Reverend Bishops of Covington, KY., Columbus, OH, Richmond, VA, Vincennes, IN and Wilmington, DE.

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So far the only copies of the newspaper that my research has uncovered are the issues found in the archives of the American Catholic Historical Society at Overbrook Seminary in Philadelphia. (4) Here are found 283 copies from February, 1887 to September 1894. They have all been microfilmed for the American Theological Library Association Board of Microtext. Most of the issues of the American Catholic Tribune were four pages in length; a few issues were eight pages. Normally, there were seven columns per page. From time to time certain articles were repeated suggesting that Rudd ran out of material for a given week. Many articles were copied from other newspapers, both secular and Catholic, both Black and white. On the front page there was often a column or two devoted to Catholic teaching or Catholic practice. The front page often contained stories filed by one of the paper's correspondents; such a Isaac Moten, a native of Fort Wayne and Indianapolis, who was correspondent for a time for the Mid-West; Lincoln Valle', originally from St. Louis, a correspondent traveling over the entire country; and also for a time, Robert L. Ruffin, correspondent for New England. The latter two men, Valle' and Ruffin, were important in Rudd's other activities. Rudd had for a time a Rome correspondent, a Black seminarian at the College of Propaganda. (5) There were also others who acted as correspondents.

Many news stories dealt with matters of particular interest to American Blacks, for example the article by Frederick Douglas in which the former minister to Haiti explained the circumstances of his resignation. (6) Local news of the Black community in Cincinnati appeared under the by-line of John R. Rudd, Daniel Rudd's nephew, who had the title of city editor. At certain periods local news of the Black community in Chicago, Baltimore, and Louisville/Bardstown and other cities would appear. Many of the correspondents traveled in certain areas, doubling as subscription agents, and they would file stories into the Cincinnati office from where they were.

Other news stories, especially those filed by the local correspondents, dealt with local catholic news, particularly Black Catholic community news. There were also the usual space fillers-anecdotes, jokes, news items, and always a serialized version of a novel or short story.

Most important, however, were the editorial comments and featured articles that presented Daniel Rudd's major thesis. Rudd was convinced that the Catholic Church was one, great hope for Blacks in the United States. He expressed this thesis in many ways.

There is an awakening among some people to the fact that the Catholic Church is not only a warm and true friend to the Colored people but is absolutely impartial in recognizing them as the equals of all and any of the other nations and races of men before her altars. Whether priest or laymen they are equals, all within the fold. (7)

Or again in an unsigned article on the front page of his paper in January of 1891:

The Negro of this country ostracized, abused and downtrodden and contemned, needs all the forces which may be brought to bear in his behalf to elevate him to that plane of equality which would give him the status he needs as "a man among men."…We need assistance and should obtain help whenever and wherever it can be given. The Holy Roman Catholic Church offers to the oppressed Negro a material as well as spiritual refuge, superior to all the inducements of other organizations combined…

We need the church, the church wants us. Investigate, brethren. See, comprehend for yourselves and we are satisfied as to what will be the answer. (8)

Rudd could put the same message more succinctly, for instance:

The Catholic Church alone can break the color line. Our people should help her to do it. (9)

Or again

We believe there is no leadership quite so capable that of the Catholic Church, because she has up to this time, been the only successful leader of men of all the other races. (9a)

This thesis was often presented with all the fervor and triumphalism of the nineteenth century, for example

Anyone who has read history and given ear to the inevitable conclusions that grow out of its teachings can see at a glance that in the Catholic Church alone is the only permanent advancement to be made. She alone advances steadily, and in her upward, onward flight, carries with her all the races of mankind on an equal footing. There is no hope for us outside her portals even in a temporal sense. All other friendships are ephemeral and must vanish. (10)

Despite the simplicity of Rudd's thesis, he was not completely uncritical of the Catholic Church nor was his strongly held belief in Catholicism without reflection and knowledge. In the editorial columns of the newspapers, he took issue with the comments and opinions of other Catholic newspapers regarding the question of race and racial segregation. Rudd was very interested in the Church's social teaching. In 1891 the American Catholic Tribune published the translation of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical, Rerum Novarum, in five issues, Rudd commenting thereon in his editorials. (11)

If Rudd was less critical of racism in the Church, he was most outspoken regarding the situation of Blacks within the United States. The period of the 1890s was particularly the nadir of Black American history. The intimidation of Blacks increased throughout the South, particularly the lynching of Blacks increased dramatically each year. The volume of segregation laws passed by state legislatures augmented as the decade progressed. Rudd publicized lynching. (12) He published articles and editorials on the spread of racial segregation. He particularly opposed such laws when attempts were made to introduce them in the state of Ohio. (13) Rudd made his newspaper columns available to militant Black newspapermen, like T. Thomas Fortune, editor of the prestigious Black weekly, The New York Age. (14)

If Rudd was outspoken in terms of civil rights for Blacks, he was particularly anxious to promote what was called at the time "race pride". In a sense this was one of the main purposes of the paper. Rudd published the portraits and feature articles of Black leaders in the news. In 1887, appeared an illustration of Father Augustus Tolton, the first Black priest in the United States, with the caption "The most conspicuous man in America." (15) Rudd, a Republican in politics, featured Black political leaders as well, such as George H. Jackson, a member of the Ohio State Legislature. (16)

Another portrait was that of John Mitchell, Jr., editor of The Planet of Richmond, Virginia. Mitchell was president of the Afro-American Press Association. Rudd was one of the active supporters of the association. Through his efforts, the organization met in Cincinnati from March 17th to 18th, 1891. Rudd helped to organize the meeting and served as host. (17) He believed that the Black press had a tremendous role to play for Blacks in America. He wrote the following:

The recent Press Convention which was held in this City will work a new era in the development of literature among the Colored people of the United States… one hundred and sixty newspapers is not a very large showing for seven or eight millions of people, yet taking into consideration the length of time these papers have had to develop, they are marvels of beauty, information and strength, and give credit to men who have been engaged in their publications." (18)

Not only did Rudd support the Afro-American Press Association, but he also took part in the Catholic Press Association. (19)

LECTURER.

Daniel Rudd was not only editor and publisher of a weekly newspaper, he was also a lecturer of some renown. His paper reflected this activity. These lectures augmented the readership of the newspaper. Rudd traveled over much of the Mid-West and the South and parts of the east coast talking about the Catholic Church and Black Americans. In 1887, for example, Rudd spoke in Lexington, Kentucky at Jackson hall on "The New Civilization." Rudd reprinted the article concerning this lecture from The Louisville Courier Journal, May 29, 1887. According to this report, Rudd said

…to keep pace with his fairer-hued brother, the Negro must be grounded in truth and fairness…and enter every field where the genius of man avails to conquer. As a means to this end I feel it my duty…to dispel some of the misinformation that exists among a portion of my race concerning the Roman Catholic Church…I want to show him that today, greater than before, Holy Mother Church is striving to educate and build up the unfortunate of every race and tribe… (20)

Rudd had delivered this same lecture in Fort Wayne, Indiana earlier in the year at the Catholic Library Hall. (21) Rudd continued to speak in other areas throughout the country, places as widely separated as Lewiston, Maine, (22) and Natchez, Mississippi. (23) Rudd spoke in German in Lectures to the German-speaking around Cincinnati. (24)

In the summer of 1889, Rudd was sent to Europe where he met Cardinal Lavigerie. An anti-slavery conference was scheduled for that summer to be held in Lucerne. Cardinal Lavigerie, founder of the White Fathers, Archbishop of Algiers, and tireless fighter against African slavery, was the guiding force for the projected congress. It is difficult to say how and by whom Rudd was chosen to attend the congress. Nor is it clear who supplied the funds. In the July 6, 1889 issue of the American Catholic Tribune there is a suggestion made in one of the reprinted columns that Daniel Rudd should accompany Robert L. Ruffin to Lucerne for the international conference. (25) A week later, Rudd remarks in his paper that "the Catholics of the United States seem to be the only class of…citizens…taking proper interest in the great International Anti-Slavery Congress…" (26) Rudd complained in the same editorial that American Blacks did not seem to be interested in this project to end the slave trade.

Rudd set sail for Hamburg from New York according to the Tribune article with "his French Secretary, Mr. Henry L. Jones, of New Orleans and Mr. Robert L. Ruffin-and probably Father Tolton." (27) In actual fact, there is no indication that either Tolton or Jones made the trip. Rudd wrote back reports of his travel for publication in the newspaper. (28) It was not until his arrival in Hamburg that Rudd learned that the international congress was postponed. In actual fact, it would be held in 1890 in Brussels. In a letter to his ordinary, Archbishop Elder, Rudd described his visit with Lavigerie.

London, August 12th 1889.

Most Reverend Dear Sir: When I arrived in Hamburg, I saw in one of the German papers a dispatch dated July 24th, saying that the Congress had been indefinitely postponed. I continued, however to Lucerne, arriving there August 3rd. The dispatch proved to be correct. I did not see His Eminence until the 5th as he was at Ochenstein and only arrived Sunday night August 4th…

…The reception extended us was royal, for His Eminence kissed us like a father. So overjoyed was Africa's great Apostle when he read our letters and credentials that he said our very presence there would give him new life and new zeal to work for a race that was so full of gratitude…

Rudd wrote this letter from the residence of Cardinal Manning in London where he stayed with Robert Ruffin. Lavigerie had given Rudd a letter of introduction to Manning. In the same letter Rudd goes on to say that he delivered a lecture at the Cathedral Hall in London. In closing, he informed Archbishop Elder that Lavigerie had made him his representative in the United States for his work on behalf of African slaves. (29)

Cardinal Lavigerie made a great impression on Rudd. On December 3, 1892, Cardinal Lavigerie died in North Africa. Rudd ran a portrait of the cardinal and a lengthy obituary notice on the front page of his paper the following week. More than once Rudd referred to his meeting with the cardinal in his paper.

In 1894, Rudd moved his paper from Cincinnati to Detroit. In fact, the American Catholic Tribune in December 1893 was published in Detroit. The issue of February 1, 1894, however, was still published in Cincinnati. The following issue, on the other had, February 8, 1894, came from Detroit. The Detroit City Directory lists the address of Rudd and his nephew until 1897. (30) It seems that the paper did not flourish in the new surroundings. Judging from the numbering of the issues, the paper appeared somewhat irregularly. The last extant issue in the Philadelphia archives is the issue dated September 4, 1894. There are no copies of the American Catholic Tribune in any Detroit Library.

THE CONGRESSES

The Congress of Colored CatholicsEven if Daniel Rudd had never been a newspaper publisher, he would still have left his mark on Black Catholic history in this country. It was Rudd who had the idea to call together a national congress of Black Catholics. He had already conceived such an idea when he first began his newspaper work in 1886 as is evident from the opening quotation to this paper. (31) In the summer of 1888 Rudd wrote Archbishop Elder of Cincinnati about his proposed national convention. Elder replied giving his approval. (32) Earlier that spring Rudd had submitted a detailed plan for the Congress with the idea that it should be held in Washington, DC to the Rev. John Slattery, S.S.J., who at the time was the superior general of the Josephites. (33) Finally, in the fall of 1888, Rudd wrote Cardinal Gibbons asking for permission to hold the meeting in Washington, DC. (34)

Unfortunately the issues of the American Catholic Tribune giving information about the congress, which was held from January 1st to 3rd in 1889 at St. Augustine's Parish Hall in Washington have not survived. The Washington Bee, an important Black newspaper in the nation's capital, did make the following comment in its issue of January 5th…

The Congress of Colored Catholics that met in this city during the past week demonstrated a degree of intelligence and ability. Our esteemed friend Mr. Rudd of the American Catholic Tribune was elected chairman and the ability he displayed in the management of the convention assured us that he deserved compliments…(35)

Perhaps some measure of the success might be gauged from the fact that a Black Protestant clergyman wrote a letter to the same newspaper that was published two weeks later calling for a Black Protestant congress "to warn against and fight against the proposal of the Catholics in the recent Congress…" (36)

There were five congresses in all. The second was held in Cincinnati in 1890 and the third in Philadelphia in 1892. Rudd published the proceeding of these three congresses on his press in Cincinnati. (37) (It might be added that Rudd had turned his press into a training school for young Black apprentice-printers.) (38) The last two congresses, the fourth in Chicago held jointly with the Columbian Catholic Exposition in 1893, and the last in Baltimore in 1894, received a great deal of publicity in the Catholic press. Their proceedings were never published, however. (39) These congresses became progressively more outspoken regarding such questions as the need for Catholic schools for Black youth and the need to sep up a committee of grievances to investigate the segregation policies in many Catholic churches in the South. (40) Despite this fact, the tone of the Congresses remained throughout profoundly loyal to the Church and even expressed pride in their membership in the Catholic Church. (41)

Rudd's activity was not confined to the organization of the Black Catholic lay congresses, however. He was on the steering committee for the only two American lay Catholic Congresses, namely the lay Congress held in Baltimore in November 1889 to commemorate the centennial of the establishment of the American hierarchy and the Columbian Catholic Congress, which was part of the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Rudd's role in these congresses is even better known thanks to the letters preserved in the University of Notre Dame Archives. (42) Here we have not only Rudd's letters to Henry Brownson of Detroit, William J. Onahan of St. Louis, and others; but we have their comments and Fr. John Slattery's comments about Rudd. It would seem that Rudd did not fear to be outspoken when the occasion warranted.

Daniel Rudd's career as editor and journalist ceased sometime between 1897 and 1899, he moved to Arkansas where he found a new career as business manager for two prominent Black farmers. The present writer has discovered correspondence between Rudd and Bishop Morris of Little Rock (43) which indicated Rudd's continuing interest in the spread of Catholicism among Blacks and his concern for the advancement of Blacks and civil rights. In 1932 Rudd returned to his hometown of Bardstown in Kentucky where he died on December 3, 1933 at the age of seventy-nine. (44) By that time his early achievements were no longer remembered.

ASSESSMENT

Daniel Rudd, the man and the journalist, despite available documentation remains something of an enigma. Hopefully, further research will reveal the answer to some outstanding questions. For instance, one might still ask the source of Daniel Rudd's militant Catholicism. What kind of early education did he receive in Bardstown? What kind of Church influence did he have either in Kentucky or in Ohio or both? Another mystery is the source of Daniel Rudd's income.

How did Rudd manage to survive financially? We know very little about the private Rudd. We know his feelings and his commitments regarding religion and race; we know little of his own private feelings and viewpoint. We know more about the young Rudd than we do about the later years. Did his enthusiasm wane? Did his loyalties flagg? Did his interests change?

None of these questions can be completely answered until further documentation comes to light. Nevertheless, as a conclusion I should like to draw a tentative portrait of this man.

Daniel Rudd belonged to the first generation of Blacks that came to maturity immediately following the Civil War. He was born in slavery but came to adulthood as a free and responsible citizen. He was in his early thirties when he launched his newspaper career. He probably never went to college, but did finish high school in a northern city. In that sense, he was relatively well educated for his time. By the age of forty, he had travelled to Europe, he had associated with Church leaders, he had spearheaded a national movement among Black Catholics, he had served as the only Black on two national Catholic committees, he had begun a training program for Black youth in the printer's trade, and he had become well known as a lecturer. His outlook was international. Unlike some Black Americans, he was interested in Africa and also in the Black population of the Caribbean. He knew Europe, and he was presumably reasonably fluent in a foreign language. Rudd had definite opinions and did not fear to express them, but the scope of his paper indicates a man relatively open to the ideas of his time. He was certainly energetic; he travelled over the country.

Financially, he must have lived on a shoestring. He never married, and he seemed to have consecrated all of his energy to the cause and interest he espoused. Both the newspaper and the letters reveal a man of limitless enthusiasm and boundless energy. Even the later letters the bishop of Little Rock reveal a man who still had a plan for "his people" and the Church. Rudd gave help to young Black men who worked with him on the newspaper and in the printing trade. Some were interested in the priesthood. Rudd encouraged them. On the other hand, Rudd did not always get along well with his correspondents and associates. Early on, something sourced his relationship with Slattery. And seemingly Slattery never forgave him. But the reasons remain obscure.

Rudd was a typically nineteen-century American in his optimism and his penchant for thinking in expansive terms. He normally wrote in superlatives about the many things that captured his enthusiasm. He believed fervently in the importance of the business enterprise-especially the business enterprise as a future for Blacks. Certainly, he would have leaned toward Booker T. Washington's ideal of Black self-help and self-reliance than the more intellectual approach of W.E.B. DuBois. (45)

In the final analysis we may never have a complete picture of Rudd as a person. Hopefully, future discoveries of further issues of his paper will reveal more about his journalistic career. Still, no matter what future research may reveal we know enough to say that the decade and a half of Rudd, the newspaper editor and journalist, is the decade and a half of Rudd, the Catholic activist and organizer and the Black leader and opinion-maker, who had the inspiration and the courage to set in movement a Black Catholic consciousness on which later Black Catholics would build. In this sense he was a pioneer whose recognition has been too long delayed.

Cyprian Davis, OSB
Saint Meinrad Archabbey
St. Meinrad, IN 47577

FOOTNOTES.

(1) Thomas McMillan, "Knowledge of Public Questions," The Catholic World. 47 (1888) 712-713

Daniel Rudd was born in Bardstown, KY, on August 7, 1854. His parents were Robert and Elizabeth Rudd. His father was a slave on the Rudd estate near Bardstown. Daniel Rudd gave a short account of his mother in the obituary notice that appeared in his newspaper. See the American Catholic Tribune (hereafter referred to as ACT) for April 29, 1893.

(2) See Eugene P. Willging and Herta Hatzfeld, Catholic Serials of the Nineteenth Century in the United States. A Descriptive Bibliography and Union List. Second Series: Part Twelve. Kentucky and Ohio. pp 80-81

(3) As reprinted in The Washington Bee, September 11, 1886, page 1. The Washington Bee was an important Black newspaper in Washington, DC during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.

(4) There seems to be some indication that Rudd worked for a time in Columbus, Ohio. It may be that the Ohio State Tribune was published from there. See ACT for June 17, 1887, a reprint from the Memphis Commercial Gazette. "It many not be generally known that the only colored Catholic newspaper in the United States is published in Cincinnati by Mr. Daniel J. (sic) Rudd, formerly Springfield and Columbus…"

The collection of the ACT in the American Catholic Historical Society Archives in Philadelphia have been microfilmed and are available from ATLS Microtext Board.

(5) See "Apology Accepted. "ACT, June 10, 1887, page 2. "American Catholic Tribune has a Correspondent in Rome, a Colored man at that in the person of Colonel Read, formerly of Pittsburgh, and a former associate, who is now in the College of the Propaganda…"

(6) ACT, September 19, 1891, page 1.

(7) ACT, March 4, 1887, page 2.

(8) ACT, January 10, 1891, page 1. "The Negro."

(9) ACT, January 3, 1891.

(9a) ACT, April 18, 1891.

(10) ACT, December 17, 1892, page 2.

(11) ACT 1891: June 20, June 27, July 13, July 25, August 8.

(12) For example, see ACT, July 9, 1892. "Lynch Law", page 2.

(13) See ACT editorials, February 18, 1887; May 2, 1891, October 17, 1891.

(14) See ACT, 1891: May 8, May 16, May 23, June 13.

(15) ACT, March 11, 1887.

(16) ACT, November 7, 1891.

(17) Portrait of Mitchell, ACT, April 11, 1891. For convention, see ACT, March 21, 1891.

(18) ACT, April 4, 1891, editorial.

(19) ACT, May 8, 1891.

(20) ACT, June 3, 1887, page 2.

(21) See ACT, April 1, 1887.

(22) Information found in notices of a scrapbook belonging to Msgr. J. M. Lucey, Parish Priest, Pine Bluffs, Arkansas. Clipping from unidentified Lewistown, Maine Newspaper for May 9, 1896. Little Rock Diocesan Archives. Unclassified material. By this time Rudd had moved to Detroit.

(23) See Letter of Fr. A. J. Peters to John R. Slattery, August 19, 1891. Baltimore, Josephite Archives 9-D-15

(24) Rudd's fluency in German is attested to be an article in The Journal, August 20, 1892, a Black Catholic Weekly newspaper in Philadelphia that may have been created as a rival to Rudd's ACT. It published from February to September, 1892.

Rudd also indicates his ability to speak German in his articles from Germany. See ACT, August 17, 1889, "D.A. Rudd in Munster," front page.

(25) article by J. Gordon Street, "Catholics in Boston, " front page, ACT July 6, 1889. Article was a reprint from the Philadelphia Sentinel.)

(26) ACT, July 13, 1889, editorial.

(27) Ibid., same page.

(28) See for example, ACT, August 17, 1889.

(29) Rudd to Elder, August 12, 1889. Archives of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati.

(30) Rudd is listed as living at 37 Mullett Street in 1894 - 1895. He is at 469 Monroe Avenue in 1897.

(31) The Catholic World. 47 (1888) 713.

(32) Elder Letter Book 6, p. 99. Elder to Rudd, September 19, 1888. Archives of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati.

(33) Baltimore, The Josephite Archives. Rudd to Slattery, May 8, 1888. 9-K-8.

(34) Rudd to Gibbons. 85 A. 4. Baltimore Archdiocesan Archives.

(35) The Washington Bee, microfilm, Library of Congress. January 5, 1889.

(36) Ibid. , A Letter from R.S. Laws, Laws Seminary, Washington, DC January 19, 1889.

(37) Three Catholic Afro-American Congresses. Cincinnati, Ohio., the American Catholic Tribune, 1893. Reprinted by Arno Press, Inc., New York, 1978. (The American Catholic Tradition. Jay Dolan, Advisory Editor.) The only recent study on the congresses is the article by Brother David Spaulding, CFX, "The Negro Catholic Congresses, 1889-1894." The Catholic Historical Review. 55(1969) 337-357. The present writer remains indebted to Brother Thomas David Spaulding, CFX, for his research on Daniel Rudd that was placed at my disposal.

(38) ACT, March 12, 1892.

(39) The Fourth Congress. September 4-8, 1893. See the speech by James A. Spencer to the Columbian Catholic Exposition, entitled "The Condition and Future of the Negro Race in the United States," Progress of the Catholic Church in America and the World Columbian Catholic Congresses. (2 vols in one) Chicago, ______. pp. 121-125.

See also The Church News, Washington, D.C. Catholic University of America Library, microfilm. September 16, 1893. "Colored Catholic Congress." For the Fifth Congress, October 8-11, 1894. See The Church News, CUA Library, microfilm. October 13, 1894.

(40) See The New York Sun, June 29, 1894. Library of Congress, microfilm. Letter to the Editor from Robert N. Wood, Chairman of Committee on Grievances among Colored Catholics by the Church. Caption: "The Treatment of Colored Catholics by the Church."

(41) One of the most eloquent examples of this is the address of the Fourth Congress, which Rudd signed. The text is to be found in the Boston Pilot, ______, 1984. Boston Public Library, microfilm.

The draft text is entitled "Address of the 4th Congress of Colored Catholics to the Rev. Clergy of the Catholic Church of America." University of Notre Dame Archives. IX-1-0. William J. Onahan. Columbian Catholic Congress. Speeches, Resolutions, and Miscellaneous Addresses. (This draft text is out of place and is not completely identified.)

(42) See University of Notre Dame Archives, The Henry Brownson Letters; The Catholic Congress. Baltimore, 1889; The Onahan Correspondence.

See also Souvenir Volume of the Centennial Celebration and Catholic Congress. 1789-1889. Detroit, Wm H. Hughes, 1889. Portrait of Rudd facing page 20.

(43) Archives of the Diocese of Little Rock. Bishop Morris Letters. Not yet classified. Eight letters, 1919-1920.

Rudd co-authored a book, From Slavery to Wealth. The Life of Scott Bond. By Theophilus Bond and Dan. A. Rudd, Madison, Arkansas, 1917

(44) See The Louisville Leader, Archives of University of Louisville, microfilm. This was a Black newspaper published in Louisville at the beginning of this century. Article "Bardstown" by J.E. Crowe. December 9, 1933. According to the Death Register at the St. Joseph's Church, Bardstown, Rudd died December 4, 1933. Rudd is buried in the St. Joseph's Cemetery in Bardstown.

(45) Rudd participated in the meeting of the National Negro Business League when it met in 1917 in Little Rock. The League was founded and supported by Booker T. Washington.

The following is typical of Rudd's thought. It is an editorial in the ACT, December 17, 1892.

The efforts now being exerted by the Afro-Americans of this City to regain lost ground in the commercial life of the Community, is highly commendable. If our boys and girls are to have employment, we must prepare them for work, and then establish them in some or all of the industries that make this country great.

Cyprian Davis, OSB
Saint Meinrad Archabbey
St. Meinrad, IN 47577

American Catholic Histrical Association Meeting
Louisville,KY

16 April 1983.

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